References for: Causes, evaluation, and treatment.
Medscape Women’s Health 1998 May;3(3):2 (ISSN: 1521-2076) Bick RL; Madden J; Heller KB; Toofanian A
Thrombosis Clinical Center, Department of Medicine (Hematology & Oncology), Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, Tex., USA.
The thrombotic defects associated with fetal wastage are quite common and are due to thrombosis of early placental vessels (Fig. 5). Peak fetal loss occurs in the first trimester, but loss also occurs in the second and third trimesters. The thrombotic hemostasis defects associated with recurrent fetal loss include lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies (these 2 comprise the antiphospholipid syndromes associated with recurrent fetal loss),[18,19] factor XII deficiency, dysfibrinogenemias associated with thrombosis, protein C deficiency, antithrombin deficiency, heparin cofactor II deficiency, and fibrinolytic defects (plasminogen deficiency, tissue plasminogen activator deficiency, and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1).[14,15]
Figure 5. Multiple placental thrombi, as in this placenta from woman with antiphospholipid syndrome, is commonly associated fetal wastage.
Antiphospholipid syndrome is the most common thrombotic defect leading to RFL. A variety of treatment programs have been advocated for this syndrome. However, a difficulty in evaluating these regimens relates to the study methodologies: Some studies have primarily addressed patient populations with secondary antiphospholipid syndrome and fetal wastage (in particular those with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus or other autoimmune disorders), whereas only a few have addressed primaryantiphospholipid syndrome. Primary antiphospholipid syndrome is at least 10 times more common in RFL than secondary antiphospholipid syndrome.
Fetal wastage associated with hemorrhagic disorders is likely to result from interference with adequate fibrin formation for implantation of the fertilized ovum into the uterine lining. For this reason, we choose not to treat vigorously with preconception antithrombotic therapy but rather with low-dose aspirin at 81mg/day. In contrast, Sher and colleaguesrecently reported the successful use of preconception low-dose heparin for in vitro fertilization techniques. They continue to recommend caution, however, advocating low-dose aspirin as the preconception antithrombotic therapy of choice.
The postconception addition of fixed low-dose porcine mucosal heparin at 5000 units every 12 hours is empirical, as higher doses are associated with bleeding and a lower success rate. However, even lower doses might suffice. We do not advocate using corticosteroid therapy in patients with RFL as the result of antiphospholipid syndrome. This position is based on reports of other researchers and on our preliminary experience administering steroids in conjunction with antithrombotic agents. In patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and other types of thrombosis, corticosteroid use may lower antiphospholipid antibody titers, but they fail to stop thrombotic events.[18,19,21,22]
A variety of treatment programs have been used for women with antiphospholipid syndrome (anticardiolipin antibodies or lupus anticoagulants) and RFL; however, many of these studies have reported on only very small populations, or they have failed to distinguish between primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. Brown reported a 90% failure rate (miscarriage) among untreated women, Perino and colleagues  reported a 93% failure rate in untreated women, and Many and coworkers reported a 93% failure rate in untreated patients. Lubbe and Liggins, in a small group of women, noted a successful term pregnancy rate of 80% with use of prednisone and aspirin; a similar success rate with this regimen was noted by Lin. Cowchock and associates observed a 75% success rate with prednisone alone or aspirin alone, but they also noted more undesirable effects in the prednisone-treated population. Landy and colleagues,in a small population, reported a success rate of 90% with either aspirin alone or prednisone alone. However, Many and coworkers noted only a 43% successful term pregnancy rate with aspirin and prednisone. Semprini’s team reported only a 14% success rate with prednisone alone.
Several studies have assessed the role of the postconception addition of heparin; however, most have used higher doses than those used in our clinical practice.Rosove and colleagues reported a 93% success rate with dose-adjusted subcutaneous heparin, the mean heparin doses being about 25,000 units/day. Kuttah, in a population of 25 patients, treated with aspirin plus dose-adjusted subcutaneous heparin, noting a success rate of 76% (mean heparin dose of 26,000 units/day). In the study by Many and colleagues, patients treated with prednisone plus aspirin plus heparin at 5000 units twice a day had a better outcome (69%) than those treated with aspirin plus prednisone (43%) or prednisone alone (7%).
Based on the results of our study, it appears that fixed low-dose porcine heparin is more effective than the high-dose, dose-adjusted regimens. This was evidenced by the success rate of 100%, whereby all patients with antiphospholipid-syndrome-induced RFL had normal-term deliveries. It may be that higher doses of heparin contribute to adverse outcomes, such as small periplacental hemorrhages. Parkereported on the combination of low-dose heparin used in conjunction with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Her success rate for this regimen, however, was only 27%, suggesting that IVIG has little role in antiphospholipid recurrent fetal loss.
In our experience, sticky platelet syndrome (SPS) is the second most common prothrombotic defect contributing to RFL-associated blood coagulation protein/platelet defect. Other common causes include protein S deficiency, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) deficiency, activated protein C resistance, and type 1 plasminogen activator (PAI-1) defects (Table I). Patients with SPS are treated the same as those with other prothrombotic defects, using preconception low-dose aspirin and immediate postconception addition of low-dose porcine heparin, with both agents being used to term delivery. It is unclear whether heparin is required in SPS patients; however, given the 100% success rate and lack of significant complications with this treatment regimen in our study, it is recommended that heparin be administered to patients with RFL-associated SPS.